Exploring values in Teacher Education
Strategies from a European Partnership
"We become just by the practice of just actions, self-controlled by exercising selfcontrol and courageous by performing acts of courage. Hence, it is no small matter whether one habit or another is inculcated in us from early childhood; on the contrary, it makes [...] all the difference"(1)
A public outcry
Readers of Süddeutsche Zeitung, a leading German broadsheet, wondered if it was not some kind of newspaper hoax, albeit a rather unlikely one in such a serious publication. The headline on March 31 st 2006 read: "Zum ersten Mal geben Lehrer ihre Schule auf' ("For the first time teachers give up their school"). What had happened? The day before, for the first time in Germany's educational history, the staff of the Rütli-Hauptschule in the capital of Berlin revealed to the media: "We are helpless, we don 't know what to do. We are at the end of a one-way street". „There are no values, which guide our school community. There are no role mode/s to guide us, both teachers and pupils. We are isolated and desperate. We are drowning in violence, disrespect and ignorance - the Minister of Education has to secure police protection for our school".
The political reaction after this declaration was quite obvious: Berlin's Federal State Education Minister and some other high ranking persons visited the site of the "crime", demanded quick solutions and brought policemen to the school. Since then, a public debate on values in education in schools has started and the media presented students from The Rütli School, posing in front of the cameras saying: "We have beaten them, the dammed teachers - we have won the battle!" lt smacked of Pink Floyd's "Teacher! Leave those kids alone!"
And what of the teachers of the Rütli-School? As state civil servants they were not allowed to give interviews and were compelled to remain silent on the issue. Some days later, some details about the situation in this school before the crisis, found their way to the media: The school had had no headmaster for quite a long time; the deputy headmaster had been iII for months; the absentee rate for both teachers and students was quite high. Up to 83% of the pupils at the Rütli School are of a non-German ethnic identity: Many of them Muslims from the Near East, most of them living in the largely immigrant area of nearby area of Neukölln. Increasing tensions in this socially deprived area have increased over the years and education authorities have been slow to take measures to deal with the attendance difficulties in the schools. lt became increasingly obvious that the situation in the Rütli School was just the tip of the iceberg.
Growing up absurd
In 1962 the American sociologist Paul Goodman (2) published a book with the title: Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized Society. He was among the first to describe a predictable problem of modern societies: what happens, when young people lose their orientation in society and in their future? What happens when things become "absurd" for them, because the basis of shared political, social and cultural values is vanishing and insecure? The French author Jean Baudrillard gave an answer: one result of this scenario can be "the development of singularities". Globalised complex systems are shaped by young people into such singularities, - in other words: simplistic solutions to complex situations. Baudrillard asserts that "Caught in their autonomous and exponential logic, all these parallel worlds are like time bombs". (3) Some of the "time bombs", that he describes, were also evident in the media a few months prior to the Berlin school crisis: disaffected young people in the banlieues of the big French cities used simple tactics as their response to youth unemployment, social exclusion and marginalisation: Torch your neighbours' cars and property (More than 7.000 cars were burned in three weeks!). The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu had predicted this "Firing Back" (4) in most of his publications (5).
Background of the Comenius 2. 1. Project: "Appraisal of Potential for Teaching" - APT
The strategic goal for the EU up to 2010 is to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth, with more and better jobs as well as greater social cohesion. The Work Programme for Common Objectives in Education and Training (2001) defines 3 strategic objectives: promotion of active citizenship, social inclusion and employability - areas which deal directly with the value problem in schools. Key competences like personal fulfilment and development through life (in the words of Bourdieu cultural capital), active citizenship and inclusion (social capital) and employability (human capital) are not achievable without a personal "dive" into the background of both learners and teachers. Learners and teachers depend on the knowledge or the inside view of each other's personal value belief system, the deep roots of the personal inventory of each human being, its history, its social context, its family patterns, its role models , its behaviour patterns inside classrooms. The field model of Kurt Lewin was very helpful for us:
Not knowing each other's moral, ethical, social and cultural roots (there may be some more areas which are also influential) will almost inevitably lead to a "clash of values" between learner and teacher in the future - but how to prepare for and handle this scenario? Two steps seem to be necessary:
- a teacher, who is unaware of his own values and beliefs cannot deal with different value beliefs in his students. He risks, short of becoming a zealot, in transmitting his or her own beliefs to the students and tries to indoctrinate the students. At the end of such a dead end lays the possible clash of values, a road which must lead to an irreversible exhaustion of both teachers and learners (see the Berlin example).
- The second possible step would be a clarification of the prevailing value systems in the classroom.
We concentrate on the latter dialogical issue, although knowing only too well that there are more value belief systems which play a crucial role in schooling namely those of parents, other teachers, peers, national or curricular values - to name but a few. However, an examination of such values is beyond the scope of the current article. Indicators of problems with values in most European countries formed the starting point of our application to the European Commission for a Comenius 2. 1. Project in 2003. Our "Appraisal of Potential for Teaching" (APT) project aimed to support the training of student teachers by developing together with six other European institutions of teacher education (6) the tools to help them to identify and explore fundamental attitudes towards the teaching profession. From 2003 onwards exercises and activities were developed and were piloted with student teachers during short-term intensive training programmes in 2004 and are now being implemented in the seven partner institutes. These instruments, it was hoped, would provide the student teacher with the opportunity to increase self awareness through reflection and critical questioning as a starting point for further professional development and as an "agent of change" in the school. The proposal simultaneously addressed the needs of two target groups: namely, teacher educators and student teachers. The so-called 'process learning' central to the work we undertook by using these instruments, affected both groups: if teacher educators know where the learning fields of their students teachers lie they can change the curriculum and offer individualized training units to bring out the potential of the student in a holistic manner. This approach also allows for the creation of templates for a 'leaming organization', because the work involved implies both reflection and from reflection into action to be implemented by both sides of the teaching and learning dynamic. From the beginning it was clear for all partners, that a deeper understanding of personal motivations entering the teaching profession lies far beyond knowledge of one's teaching subject. In addition to highlighting the multi-faceted nature of the teaching profession, the exercises developed in the project assist teacher educators in distinguishing the different skills and competencies on the part of the student teachers with whom they work. They can provide the student teachers with a more objective, professional diagnosis of their present potential before they enter this complex profession by bringing it to the surface and helping the students to pinpoint their strengths and learning fields.
The project aimed also to gain a wider impact at a European level. The aim of deepening a mutual understanding of the wider European teacher-training environment can lead to a future scenario, where agreed European profiles of identifiable attitudes for teaching are available and shared. One could also argue, that all these efforts are not necessary. As teacher educators our experience runs counter to this myth: while certain dispositions may be conducive to good teaching, we hold that certain skills and competencies can be developed through well-thought through, reflective processes. We are pleased to report that the European Commission' s support for this view resulted in funding of close to half a million Euro.Value Education is not teachable as a subject - it can only be seen through real and spontaneous classroom interaction.
Value education is becoming an increasingly popular topic in the fields of psychology and education but there is no evidence to show that it has made an impact in teacher education. Media reports increases in violent juvenile crime rates of teenage pregnancy and suicide have caused many commentators to declare a "value crisis" in the western society. While not all of these social concerns are value related in nature and mostly have complex origins, there is a growing trend towards linking the solution of these problems to the teaching of "moral", "ethical" or "philosophical" subjects. This seems to be something of a step back to the old "character" education, which dominated schools in the 19th century. However, considerations of the role schools can and should play in the value related development of youth are necessary. Unfortunately, results of systematic research on value related development is not very well known to teachers.
Jean Piaget (7) is among the first psychologists whose work remains directly relevant to contemporary theories of value related development. In his early writing, he focused specifically on (what he called) the "moral" lives of children, studying, as he did, the way children play games in order to learn more about children's beliefs about right and wrong. According to Piaget, all development emerges from action; that is to say, individuals construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world as a result of interactions with the environment. The second major contributor to moral thinking in young children is their relative social relationship with adults. In the natural authority relationship between adults and children, power is handed down from above. The relative powerlessness of young children, coupled with childhood egocentrism feeds into a heteronymous moral orientation. Piaget concluded from this work that schools should emphasize cooperative decision-making and problem solving, nurturing moral development by requiring students to work out common rules based on fairness. This is a direct rejection of sociologists Emile Durkheim's view of proper moral education.
Durkheim (8), similarly to Piaget, believed that morality resulted from social interaction or immersion in a group. However, Durkheim believed moral development was a natural result of attachment to the group, an attachment which manifests itself in a respect for the symbols, rules, and authority of that group. Piaget rejected this belief that children simply learn and intemalize the norms for a group; he believed individuals define morality individually through their struggles to arrive at fair solutions. Given this view, Piaget (9) suggested that a classroom teacher perform the somewhat challenging task of providing students with opportunities for personal discovery through problem solving, rather than indoctrinating students with norms.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development and Education (1969) modified and elaborated Piaget's work, and laid the groundwork for the current debate within psychology on value related development. Consistent with Piaget, he proposed that children form ways of thinking through their experiences which include understandings of moral concepts such as justice, rights, equality and human welfare. Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment beyond the ages studied by Piaget and determined that the process of attaining moral maturity took longer and was more gradual than Piaget had proposed. On the basis of his research, Kohlberg identified six stages of moral reasoning grouped into three major levels. Each level represented a fundamental shift in the social-moral perspective of the individual. Kohlberg used these findings to reject traditional "character" education practices. These approaches are premised in the idea that virtues and vices are the basis to moral behaviour, or that moral character is comprised of a "bag of virtues". According to the traditional approach, teachers are to teach these virtues through example and direct communication of convictions, by giving students an opportunity to practice these virtues, and by rewarding their expression. However, critiques of the traditional approach find flaws inherent in this model. This approach provides no guiding principle for defining what virtues are worthy of espousal, and wrongly assumes a community consensus on what are considered "positive values". In fact, teachers often end up arbitrarily imposing certain values depending upon their societal, cultural, and personal beliefs. In order to address this issue of ethical relativity, some have adopted the values-clarification approach to moral education. This teaching practice is based on the assumption that there are no single, correct answers to ethical dilemmas, but that there is value in holding clear views and acting accordingly. In addition, there is a value of toleration of divergent views. lt follows, then, that the teacher's role is one of discussion moderator, with the goal of teaching merely that people hold different values; the teacher does not attempt to present his or her views as the "right" ones. Kohlberg rejected the focus on values and virtues, not only due to the lack of consensus on what virtues are to be taught, but also because of the complex nature of practicing such virtues. For example, people often make different decisions yet hold the same basic moral values. Kohlberg believed a better approach to affecting moral behaviour should focus on stages of moral development. The goal of moral education, it then follows, is to encourage individuals to develop to the next stage of moral reasoning. This process is called equilibration, and it is through equilibration that development occurs. Early moral development approaches to education, therefore, sought to force students to ponder on the contradiction inherent in their present level of moral reasoning. The most common tool for doing this was to present a "moral dilemma" and require students to determine and justify what course the actor in the dilemma should take. Through discussion, students should then be forced to face the contradictions present in any course of action not based on principles of justice or fairness.
This idea of Kohlberg was the opening gate for our project, because we considered it could give •us a better insight on teacher trainees' value belief systems. In order to provide students with an optimal context within which to grow morally, Kohlberg and his colleagues developed the "Just Community" schools approach towards promoting moral development (10). The basic premise of these schools is to enhance students' moral development by offering them the chance to participate in a democratic community. Here, democracy refers to more than simply ”casting a vote”. lt entails full participation of community members in arriving at consensual decision making rather than "majority rules". "Just Communities" are the extreme contrary of "The shopping mall high school", were the focus is laid on consumerism (11) In the context of "Just Communities" it is believed that by placing the responsibility of determining and enforcing rules on students, they will take pro-social behaviour more seriously - a very old approach from John Dewey' s Laboratory School in Chicago from 1911.
Implementing the Just Community approach (12) is not easy for a teacher trainee, because the teacher must listen closely and understand a student's reasoning, in order to help that student to the next level of reasoning. This requires a delicate balance between letting the students make decisions, and advocating in a way which shows them the limits in their reasoning.
Carol Gilligan and the Morality of Care
A major critique of Kohlberg's work was put forth by Carol Gilligan. (13) She suggested that Kohlberg's theories were biased against women, as only males were used in his studies. By listening to women's experiences, Gilligan offered that a morality of care can serve in the place of the morality of justice and rights espoused by Kohlberg. In her view, the morality of caring and responsibility is premised in non-violence, while the morality of justice and rights is based on equality. Another way to look at these differences is to view these two moralities is providing two distinct injunctions - the injunction not to treat others unfairly (justice) and the injunction not to turn away from someone in need (care). She presents these moralities as distinct, although potentially connected. While this gender debate remains unresolved, Gilligan's work has contributed to an increased awareness that care is an integral component of moral reasoning. Educational approaches based on Gilligan's work have emphasized efforts to foster empathy and care responses in students. Perhaps the most comprehensive treatment of these issues may be found in Nel Nodding's book. (14)
All three approaches from Piaget, Cohlberg or Gilligan have one thing in common: Values are not teachable through single subject - which we find in some European countries under the label of 'philosophy", "ethics'', "moral education" or "Values". This seems to be a thin ice of teaching, because moral behaviour cannot be learnt, but must be lived by both teachers and students as a part of cultural agreement for learning. And here we come to the crucial question: where and how teacher trainees can "learn" this behaviour in a true sense?
Value Education in Future Teacher Education - Findings of the APT - Project
The distribution of "skills" of the teaching profession depends to a large extent on initial and in-service teacher education. As might be expected, research shows that good teachers need a sound conceptual and practical understanding of the subjects they are teaching (naturally!) as well as the pedagogical knowledge and skills to present material in a well-structured way, to motivate students, assess their progress and continually adjust their teaching to individual student needs. But what about the teacher trainees taking a tough stance on minority rights, on religious beliefs, on racist declarations and attitudes on the likes and dislikes of students? Can he or she pretend to be neutral in a society which battles all day long about values? How can all teachers - and not just the most motivated - be encouraged to challenge such questions, which arise daily in each classroom - far from subject-matter content? Teacher education is under a challenge as a result of the changing role of the teacher. The range of tasks teachers are expected to have responsibility for has widened significantly, for example: teaching in multicultural classrooms; developing civic and social skills; integrating students with special needs; providing professional advice to parents etc. And so the list goes on, but can we concentrate on the basic problems? The Finnish teacher educator and theorist, Pertti Kansanen (15) , focuses on four main important values related dilemmas in the class room, which occur for every teacher in today's classrooms:
Offending rules in schools.
Finnish educationalists are well known for their straightforward and reflective thinking in pragmatic ways of dealing with issues. Indeed teacher educators dealing with the new roles of teachers cannot or should not saddle student teachers with the burden of new roles, which cannot be accomplished in one single teacher generation. But the underlying demand is still: Where is the preparation for future teachers to deal with this multiple-shift of paradigms in at least four important fields of teaching?
The APT project partners experienced different training strategies which can lead to enhancing moral sensitivity or value clarification of future teachers. Value Education requires individuals to act on their value related convictions. But how can you find out about someone's value related convictions? In social psychology several models exist, which deal with the "iceberg" or "water-lily" problem. Our project took the following one. Value clarification is a process, to lift up internalised values from lnvisibility to Visibility (Waterlily model, adopted from Edgar Schein)
The model describes the dialectics of value clarification in two ways: like a waterlily, which has its roots deep down in the ground, every person has their own roots on moral convictions. These roots have been developed in early socialisation, through experiences, traumatic situations, basic assumptions, defeats or disappointments, myths, heroes and maybe many more factors. What people show upon the surface - at the water line - are artefacts of these inner beliefs In other words: “I show you (only) what I want you to see”. The process of lifting up these deep roots is shown on the right band side of the model: Value clarification by using several diagnostic tools, which the APT project has developed and piloted in the last three years with student teachers in the participating European countries:
- Creating dilemma situations from the classroom and discuss them. (Kohlberg's idea and Kansanen's focus on four main patterns). This is one of the contributions of the Irish partner of APT.
- Creating high stake situations of action in a group, where communication skills are only one vital part of possible solutions - the other parts are value related behaviour ( e. g. Project Adventure (PA) exercises or Potential Assessments. As the German APT partner, who has developed and implemented such workshops in their teacher education curriculum, points out, a lot of extra qualification is necessary for these exercises in risk-taking and chance).
- Creating role-playing exercises to sensitise student teachers to professional dilemmas and related strategies to make professionals aware that their actions affect others - one of the exercises developed by our UK Partner.
- Narrative "Life stories", where early experiences with value questions are linked with actual problems in the class rooms - bringing to the fore the students' own voices. The Spanish partner developed three different approaches to life story analysis: a) Extemal analysis (the interpretation is conducted by an evaluator/teacher, etc.); b) Self-analysis (carried out by individual) and c) A dialogical model as a cooperative approach (the philosophy behind this is to make the implicit explicit as a collaborative task). The analysis requires the collaboration of the teacher to elicit the sense and coherence. lt enables the student (writer) to distance him/herself from their own life, while allowing the teacher to get a close look at it.(16)
- Creating exercises of thinking in polarities - in three steps: Firstly individual marking, where someone personally locates themselves on the line, secondly the same task in pairs, thirdly in the peer group.
- Creating Educational wall building.
The Belgian partner experienced this with the following declarations:
- A teacher must always be at the disposition of parents and the pupils.
- A teacher must prepare the pupils for their exams.
- A teacher must focus on the pupils ' study method.
- A teacher must pay attention to the pupils 'social skills.
- Pupils must trust their teacher.
- My teaching should reflect the various cultures and nationalities in my class.
- A teacher must care for the pupils ' emotional well- being.
- A teacher must be acquainted with the fashion and trends of young people.
- A teacher is always a good methodologist.
- A teacher should focus on the process rat her than the product.
- A teacher must regularly take in service training.
- A teacher must "radiate" authority.
- Dealing with bullying issues is more important than teaching a subject.
- The teacher must make sure the pupils like his classes.
- A teacher must meet the needs of boys and girls.
- A teacher has communicative skills (active listening, “I” messages)
- A teacher organises all kinds of activities that relate to his subject.
- A teacher is environment- minded (sorts out garbage, has a lunchbox)
- A teacher must be fair minded to his pupils
- A teacher must be comical to his pupils
The task: Individually build a wall with the bricks by ranking these declarations: - 6 bricks as foundation - 5 bricks for the second layer 4 for the third - 3 bricks for the fourth layer - Do not use the two bricks that are left. - Two empty bricks for values you personally think highly off.
7. Assessment centres idea used for potential analysis
In Germany the teacher training College in Offenburg has so far developed four different types of tools. These are offered to the students as options at the start of the final probationary period (i.e. 18 months' prior to them entering the teaching profession).
The first tool is a standardized Entrance Interview 1, where the german APT Team has constructed a set of questions, which deal with knowledge, skills and abilities that the students have acquired during their university studies. Entrance Interview 2, held one year later should demonstrate a learning curve when they revisit the answers from Entrance Interview I and compare them with Entrance Interview II. The early attempts revealed some flaws to the approach: for example discrepancies occurred between the meaning the students took from certain questions in the interviews and the meaning we had intended. We subsequently developed a face-to-face interview to tease out the meanings and understandings of either side. With the help of a question sheet, we interviewed the students face to face. We asked the students about their school career, learning biography, visions and missions, etc. The answers were written down by the interviewer, signed by the interviewee and then taken to his own portfolio. This instrument was a partial success - many students appreciated the personal contact - while others may have felt intimidated by the tutor/student power dynamic and may therefore have kept their answers vague as a result.
The third instrument in Germany is the APT workshop, which is still offered on a voluntary basis. For one and a half days - mostly Friday afternoons and Saturdays - a group of six student teachers are guided to a room we refer to as the "backstage area" where a so-called "backstage" person, a tutor or another student supervises. The students are given exercises, which they can prepare within a certain time frame. They are then called on to present the results in another room to six observers from the college staff, but tutors that they do not know. The observers are specially trained for their observation, especially regarding the distinction between observing" and "judging" and the technique of "observing" and the somewhat challenging task of simultaneously observing and taking notes. The three or four exercises range from individual work (e. g. present yourself for 5 minutes to your new teacher colleagues) working with a partner (e. g. present to the department your plans for an outdoor stay of 5 days) and group work (e. g. plan and present to your colleagues your ideas for an Open Day in the school).
The exercises are watched by the observers for their preparation and their presentation and are always derived from a possible educational context the student teachers would experience. After these exercises, the students being observed are given the chance to de-brief. They arrange a date (ideally allowing for a delay of a couple of days) for an individual feedback from the tutor/observer. The real work then starts for the observers group. In the follow up the observers group session comprises of three sections: a) an immediate "gut-reaction" response which is noted and put aside, b) discussion of the student's strengths c) discussion of the student's learning fields Only b) and c) are later reported to the person as the statement of the observer group.
8. Creating individual plans for the development of teacher competence.
This was the Swedish APT approach. Students had an opportunity to apply for participation in the project. 10 students with different profiles from the middle of the program were recruited. During 1.5 years seven seminars of 1. 5 hours each were offered and certificated. An overview highlights the very Swedish approach:
The possibility to international exchanges and contacts to other European Teacher Training Institutes was also embedded in this approach. The development of the individual development plan had to be documented in individual logs.
9. Creating examples of teacher growth supporting activities
The Estonian approach included similar questions like the Swedish. lt focuses on the new role of teacher and teacher education by implementing structural features, which include initial training, induction year and in-service training. The main aims were:
- Continuous self-reflection, development of skills
- Being an agent of change
- Fellowship and cooperation with different associated groups
- Ability of integration
- Ethical responsibility
The Estonian tools can be seen as a mixture of tools which were adopted from our own findings, other partners and fit into the Estonian teacher training system. The German Entrance Interviews and the Face to Face Interviews were used in the selection of teacher trainees, to reflect upon the choice of candidates for the future profession. A development portfolio for supporting teacher training was based on the Swedish approach. The implementation of an 'electronic portfolio' - based on another approach from Belgium - will extend the teacher growth supporting activities. These are only some examples of the developed diagnostic tools. Further details of each are available from the author.
Changes in society: globalisation and consumerism are variously blamed for the "loss" of values at both an individual level and societal level. The APT project takes the view that such an answer is too simplistic. Values cannot "get lost", but they can change and "old" values can disappear and be replaced by others. To act as change agents in schools teachers need to adopt new roles, which vary widely from the old roles as information providers to learning moderators. One of the new roles needed is value clarity in dealing with diversity in today's classroorns. The precondition of understanding values and belief systems of students from different social, cultural or religious backgrounds is the reflection of one´s own value and belief system. Every new teacher entering the profession nowadays should be provided with tools that create a deeper understanding of their personal motivations entering the profession, in addition to a deep reflection about one's own personal belief system. These aspects of good teaching, especially issues like attitudes, behaviour and value clarity are competences that lie far beyond the knowledge of subjects. They cannot be "downsized" to ethical subjects in the school curriculum. They form part of a process, which can deeply influence the future of young students. The only way of implementing the training of these competences in different European teacher training systems is the acceptance of a variety of approaches. The APT project shows that tools for value education cannot be "exported" or "imported". They must be adjusted to the political, social and cultural background of the given school system and the teacher education system. We have experienced diversities, not singularities and by doing this widespread scenery of possible approaches has been found, piloted and implemented. Everyone one of us as a practitioner of teaching has from his old school days kept in mind one or two persons, who were "good teachers" (or "bad teachers") in the true sense of a value relation towards us as students. No one can dare to say, what exactly were the "good" or the "bad" things of these individual teachers - their behaviour in the classroom, their attitudes towards the students, their inner beliefs or their ethical background. In the past, value education in the classroom took place with a whip, which could hardly be described as a very trustful approach. The African adage "lt takes a whole village to raise a child" brings us to the crucial point: The educational "village" or "community" for values education can be parents, teachers, headmasters, school assistants, teacher educators, social workers, caretakers, school nurses, if they are guided by child centered values, attitudes and competences - because: "The first sensation, which an infant gets, is the universe".24 Value education is 'taking care' of you and of the students. The 'ethics of mindfulness' leads to the bottom of the heart - to heart communication.
 Aristotle (trans. 1962). Nicomachean ethics. New York.
 Paul Goodman (1962) Growing Up Absurd. Problems of Youth in the Organized Society, Vintage, New York
 Jean Baudrillard (1992): "Global Debt and Parallel Universe" - an essay. See: http://www. uta. edu/english/aptlcol/ab/baudweb.html ,
 Pierre Bourdieu (2003) : Firing Back - Against the Tyranny of the Market, translated by Loic Wacquant, New Press
 Pierre Bourdieu (2000): The Weight of the World - Social Suffering in Contemporary Society, Translated by Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, Stanford University Press, Original: La misere du Monde (1993!)
 Estonia (Tallinna Kaülikool); Sweden (Lulea tekniska universitet), Spain (Facultad de Ciencias de la education - Universidad de Granada); UK (Edge Hill College of Higher Education, Ormskirk, Lancashire); Belgium (Provinciale Hogeschool Limburg); Ireland (National University Maynooth) and as coordinating unit Germany (Staatliches Seminar für Lehrerbildung und Didaktik Offenburg)
 Piaget, Jean (1954) Das moralische Urteil beim Kinde, Zürich. Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgement of the child. New York: Free Press.
 Durkheim, Emile: Moral Education. A study in the theory and application of the sociology of education. New York, Free Press 1973. Origin: Emile Durkheim: Erziehung, Moral und Gesellschaft. Vorlesung an der Sorbonne 1902/1903. Frankfurt/Main 1984, S. 37-55. cited by: Franzjörg Baumgart (Hg.): Theorien der Sozialisation. Bad Heilbrunn 1997, S. 44-55.
 An excellent contemporary adaptation of Piaget's theory for moral development of young children may be found in De Vries, R. & Zan, B. (1994). "Moral Children: Constructing a Constructivist Atmosphere in Early Education." New York: Teachers College Press.
 Power, C./Higgins, A./Kohlberg,L. (1989): Lawrence Kohlberg's approach to moral education.
 See: Oser, Fritz/Althof Wolfgang (2001) Die gerechte Schulgemeinschaft: Lernen durch Gestaltung des Schullebens, in: Edelstein, Wolfgang/Oser, Fritz/Schuster, Peter (eds): Moralische Erziehung in der Schule, 2001.Fritz Oser describes some efforts for Just Communities in Switzerland, but it looks like that the approach is more common in primary than in secondary schools.
 See: Nucci, L. & Weber, E. (1991) "The domain approach to values education: from theory to practice" In W. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (Eds.) "Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development (Volume 3: Applications)pp. 251-266). and also in: Nucci, L. (1989) "Challenging Conventional Wisdom About Morality: The Domain lpproach to Values Education." In L. Nucci (Ed.) "Moral Development and Character Education: A Dialogue" Berkeley: Mc Cutchan.
 Carol Gilligan(1982): "In a Different Voice: Psycho/ogical Theory and Women's Development".
 Nel Nodding (1992): "The challenge to care in schools" New York: Teachers College Press.
 Kansanen, P., Tirri, K., Meri, M., Krokfors, L., Husu, J., & Jyrhämä, R. (1999). Moral perspectives in teachers thinking. In M. Lang, J. Olson, H. Hansen, & W. Bünder (Eds.), Changing Schools/Changing Practices: Perspectives an Educational Reform and Teacher Professionalism (pp. 109-116)
 Pineau & Le Grand (1993) Les Histoires de vie: p. 100-2
 William James, Talks to teachers,1890